Sports and American Society

How sports affect American culture

Sunday, September 24, 2006 Exploring An Effective Sports Website

Over 147 million people use the Internet, a resource that has become a universal device for people all over the world to access information and keep in touch through online social networks. According to the latest trends (as of February 2004) on Pew Internet & American Life Project, 73% of all adults use the Internet, with 43% of Internet users “check[ing] sports scores or info” and 11% doing this on a daily basis. ESPN (Entertaining and Sports Programming Network) is an advanced website that is easily the most recognizable name in sports broadcasting and information. reflects an online version of the television station’s main purpose of supplying scores, news updates, and commentary in every major sport from around the world. People who want to find out sports news will visit ESPN’s website because it has established logos, or credibility within the sports market. They work under the .com domain in the media genre, using their slogan as the site's banner, proclaiming themselves "The Worldwide Leader in Sports." Recently has been recognized by The Webby Awards, who every year compile a list of nominees representing the top websites in a particular category. This year's Webby Award Winner and People’s Voice Winner in sports were both awarded to While ESPN is an established site with many strengths that make it such a popular sports resource, there are still weaknesses which could be improved to make it even more informative and user-friendly.

The demographic of the intended reader is anyone who enjoys sports, but is mostly focused on men between the ages of approximately twenty-five to fifty. This can be inferred based on the general sports-watching audience as well as the demographic of the ESPN sportswriters themselves, almost all of whom fall into this designation. The Page 2 option on the top bar of each page provides a scroll-down short-cut to some of the most popular sportswriters who write for Of those fourteen names, only Mary Buckheit is a woman. Although Buckheit has the liberty to write about any topic that she wishes to cover, her mini-biography on her archives page describes her main focus as “college softball” and the “X-Games.” Neither of these two sports fall into the four majors (NFL, NBA, MLB, NHL) that most people want to read about. These columnists represent the predominantly white, upper middle class, male point-of-view who represents ESPN's main market.

The content is presented through a variety of different options that the reader can select. The Webby Awards describe content as being “not just text, but music, sound, animation, or video-anything that communicates a sites body of knowledge.” The homepage is used as a template designating links to each of these mediums, which include objective news stories as well as commentaries written by ESPN sportswriters. All of the content that the Web Style Guide describes as being “above the fold,” represents the most important and pertinent sports stories that viewers want to read. This includes scores, headlines, objective news stories, and commentaries by ESPN columnists.

ESPN Motion allows viewers to play interviews and various clips by selecting one of the options on the scroll-down menu. Often a commercial will immediately begin playing when the page loads, which the viewer must play through to its entirety in order to be allowed to view and listen to the desired clip. This can be a nuisance if the noise is unexpected or the visitor is forced to continue clicking it off whenever they log onto the site. If you don't include controls, users will hit your page with no way to control their viewing environment…Many users in this situation will simply close the browser window to make the sound stop, which means that they never get to see the page content.” ESPN Motion is a young feature that many sites are now trying to utilize by offering technology similar to what can be found on YouTube. This creates another level of on-demand service which especially appeals to the younger consumer.

ESPN’s homepage is structured concisely through links and visuals, but could certainly be somewhat overwhelming for a first-time visitor. The Web Style Guide describes that in terms of navigation, “in complex sites with multiple topic areas it is not practical to burden the home page with dozens of links — the page grows too long to load in a timely manner, and its sheer complexity may be off-putting to many users.” One of the difficulties in designing a page to hold such a large amount of information is the organization and ease of navigation. The consistency of the page layouts assist in familiarizing the reader with how to maneuver around the site. The scroll-down, main story, headlines, videos, and opinions are all in thesame location on the different pages, depending on what sport the reader selects. The Webby Awards elaborate that effective navigation “allow[s] you to form a mental model of the information provided, where to find things, and what to expect when you click.” Certain sports like soccer will change the main topic bar to reflect the different areas within that specific page, but the bar remains the same for the four major sports. Additionally, there is a search bar and supplied links to resources including a site map, contact information, and a help guide. These features make the website easier to use, specifically if the reader wants to find older articles or is having troubleshoot problems.

ESPN’s website has evolved favorably over the years, in terms of visual appeal and functionality. The Internet Archive allows one to view these changes to as far back as 1999 (shown below), when the homepage was more condensed and had significantly less graphics. By 2002, the page moved more towards how it looks now except that the links were on the far left. Most viewers going on ESPN will be navigating away from the homepage, which is much easier to do with the present site because everything is at the top in a scroll-down format. The older version forces the user to go down the page and click a couple of links before finding exactly what they want.

The visual design of the site is especially important for entertainment websites. "This audience needs to be grabbed immediately by compelling graphic and text presentations, or they'll simply hop somewhere else in search of stimulation." The design is very attractive and appropriate for each topic. “Good visual design is high quality, appropriate, and relevant for the audience and the message it is supporting.” The pictures are crisp and arranged in a way to make it easy for the viewer to select what they want to read. Because there is so much going on in each page, it can take older browsers longer to load but anyone with current settings should not have a delay. The links are all active and support the functionality of the site.

One of the drawbacks to visiting is the constant barrage of advertisements. The Web Style Guide points out that “unfortunately, content presentation in entertainment and magazine sites is consistently marred by the intrusion of banner ads, whose winking, blinking, and blaring colored boxes interfere with on-screen reading.” ESPN’s website utilizes moving advertisements, one as a banner at the very top of the page, and another near the headlines. Both are placed at the sightlines where visitors are almost certainly going to view them. Additionally, when a story is selected, a moving advertisement is placed just to the right of the text, often distracting the reader.

Some of the content on acts as self-promotion. The top of the homepage shows what program is on the ESPN channel at that moment as well as throughout the day. Another link enables visitors to stream ESPN Radio through their computer, allowing people to listen without a radio. In addition, many of the advertisements are marketing ESPN programs like Game Plan, College Game Day, and Sports Nation. A more indirect form of ESPN promotion is through content that is specifically linked to sporting events that can only be watched on ESPN. For example, there is a page called ESPN Monday Night Surround which focuses solely on Monday Football. This page offers predictions, analysis, fantasy picks, and previews. A large portion is devoted to “Fan Challenge,” where fans can submit their picks and climb the leader board. In addition all of the programming relating to the game is advertised, including Monday Night Advantage, SportsCenter, and Monday Night Countdown. A similar set-up was available during the X-Games, which were primarily broadcasted on ESPN.

The commentary and analysis articles written by ESPN sportswriters often reflect the topics from the news stories. If a person is looking for information on a specific team beyond basic statistics and rosters, ESPN is only a good reference if that team is currently in the news. ESPN columnists approach a story from a macroscopic level, where the articles are focused more on the entire league rather than one specific team. The articles are insightful and often entertaining, but rather limited in the discussion of certain details about minor transactions, players, or team organization information.
Bill Simmons (aka the Sports Guy), unquestionably one of ESPN’s most popular writers, combines sarcasm and random pop culture tangents into his sports columns. An example would be the article "Sports Guy Seal of Approval," which summarized the summer’s most important sports moments. Simmons summarizes the US Open by divulging that he “never really liked Agassi,” while simultaneously describing “Andy Roddick, [as] the homeless man's Agassi whose career peaked off the tennis court when he hosted ‘SNL’ and dated Mandy Moore.” His article begins with the statement: “I don't care about tennis anymore. Haven't in some time, actually.” Sports fans looking for an objective opinion would not feel the need to read any further due to Simmons’ own declaration establishing his distaste and lack of interest. Simmons’ readers, on the other hand, welcome his aversion because they know that the following assessment will be honest, critical, and worth reading in terms of entertainment value.

Another important feature of an effective website is its interactivity, or “input/output, as in searches, chat rooms, e-commerce and gaming or notification agents, peer-to-peer applications and real-time feedback.” While there is a search box on each page, the interactivity of ESPN’s site is mostly reserved forESPN Insiders.” Insiders pay a monthly fee that gives them a subscription to ESPN The Magazine as well as a username and password that allow the subscriber to view any article indicated by the orange “in” box. Insider articles are written by ESPN sportswriters, usually as a commentary or analysis. This feature significantly reduces the amount of material a non-subscriber can read off of the website. Many of the writers also have chats, in which anyone can submit a question and watch live as the writers answer the ones that they select. Upon the conclusion of the chat, only insiders are able to access the contents. So while anyone can submit a question, only insiders are able to read the responses.

In terms of overall experience, ESPN’s website succeeds in informing their viewers about sports through various execution and simple navigation. The site can be used to quickly check the score in a game or to spend a more significant amount of time reading the commentaries and watching various interviews or highlights. It appeases both casual and dedicated sports fans.

Friday, September 15, 2006

Perspective on the NBA: Responses to Other Blogs

This week instead of posting a traditional entry, I will share some comments that I submitted to two other blogs relating to sports, specifically professional basketball. The first is from blogmaverick, a blog belonging to the Dallas Mavericks owner, Mark Cuban. I am always interested to read Cuban’s entries, which range in topic from business and technology to the NBA. This particular post is in reference to Team USA and the frustration over international rules after their recent loss to Greece. The best basketball players in the world play in the NBA, which is comprised mostly of American talent. Yet, Team USA has not dominated worldwide competition.
The second blog entry I responded to was from True Hoop, a basketball website belonging to sports writer Henry Abbott. This topic dealt with the NBA’s Rookie Transition Program, which requires rookies attend a series of lectures about what to expect in the NBA and how to make the right decisions regarding finances, the media, and even groupies.

Monday, September 11, 2006

Andre Agassi Retiring: A New Shift in American Male Tennis

Yesterday Roger Federer won his third straight U.S. Open title, but the match to watch had long been over. Earlier in the week Andre Agassi ended a twenty-year career at age 36, losing 7-5, 6-7 (4), 6-4, 7-5 to qualifier Benjamin Becker. It took Agassi four cortisone shots in five days in order to finish his run at the tournament he won just three years ago.

After the match, Agassi walked onto the center of Arthur Ashe Stadium where he addressed the crowd for a final time and wept as they gave him a 4-minute standing ovation. The speech was heartfelt and moving, with Agassi attributing the fans to much of his success. “You have pulled for me on the court and also in life. I've found inspiration. You have willed me to succeed sometimes even in my lowest moments…I will take you and the memory of you with me for the rest of my life.”

Agassi proved to be one of the most entertaining men to watch through his style of play and natural charisma. Agassi has always been a crowd favorite, with his matches frequently held at night as the headliner to close each evening. His rivalry with the all-time great Pete Sampras matches that of McEnroe and Connors before them. While Sampras perfected the serve and volley, Agassi pounded the ball in the backcourt and relied on his athletics to run to each shot across the court. As he has gotten older, Agassi has continued to get stronger and it has been inspiring to watch him keep competing even when his ranking slipped and his body gave out.

Agassi retiring marks the last of the remaining American male veterans, following Jim Courier, Michael Chang, and Sampras. Just as those names once dominated men’s tennis, the new crop of American male players including Andy Roddick, James Blake, and Robby Ginepri, have all struggled to maintain solid records. Roddick has been the most hopeful prospect, but has been inconsistent and has yet to prove himself as a serious contender against Federer. Roddick’s record against Federer is now 1-12, with yesterday’s loss the third time Federer had defeated Roddick in the finals of a major.

This is now officially the Roger Federer era of tennis, with the twenty-five year old Swiss winning his 9th major and 41st career title. Federer is quickly chasing Sampras’ all-time major record of 14, with several years left in his career and no obvious American threats to stop him.

Sunday, September 03, 2006

Representation and Image: The Role of Media in Influencing the Public

Terrell Owens played his first NFL game in over ten months last Thursday, marking his debut with the Dallas Cowboys. Fans gave his performance a standing ovation, a stark contrast to the drama and questions that have followed Owens since signing with the team in March. Owens was in the news again last week when he missed practice because he “overslept.” This marked the 20th practice that Owens has missed this early into football season, leading to a fine of $9,500 from the team. Often the media is blamed by players and teams for blowing up situations into something bigger than they are. Clearly the media plays an important role in portraying athletes a certain way to the public, but when is their representation considered accurate and when is it exploitative?

Owens’ career has been dominated by his controversial comments and actions that he has taken against his former teams, most notably his much publicized fall-out with the Philadelphia Eagles that led to his suspension from the team. But despite all of the negative press he has received, Owens remained the top free agent this off-season, landing a three-year, $25 million contract that even included a $5 million signing bonus. Instead of working to rebuild his reputation as a dependable wide receiver, Owens has fallen plague to the same criticisms he has faced in the past. In case anyone is questioning how much time Owens is actually spending exercising on a bike to heal his hamstring, T.O. took it upon himself to wear a Tour de France racing uniform as a reflection of his commitment to rehabilitation. The media is looking for a perspective that will attract readers and keep them entertained. When you say something stupid, it makes a bigger headline. When you dress up to say something stupid, you risk looking like an idiot.

The media has tremendous influence over who’s going to dominate headlines, with personality now as important as talent. Sponsorships and advertising contracts continue to be a huge generator of revenue for individual athletes. Players must hold universal appeal in order to get large companies to pay them millions of dollars for an endorsement of their product. In the NBA, athletes like Shaquille O’Neal and LeBron James are much more likely to head a campaign than Tim Duncan or Steve Nash. O’Neil has built a reputation within the media that allows him to say outrageous comments while still maintaining overall likeability. On the other hand, an athlete like Kobe Bryant isn’t given the same freedom when addressing the public through the media. As a result of his own circumstances that have been played out by the media, Bryant only this past year finally filmed a commercial with Nike in which he used his relationship with the media and his public image as the concept of the “love me or hate me” ad.

Regardless of what eventually gets printed, Terrell Owens’ strong debut against the Minnesota Vikings and public reception emphasizes the power balance of media control. In sports, physical performance will always indicate the value of an athlete. So as long as T.O. continues to make big plays and Kobe Bryant keeps hitting big shots, fans will consequently show their support and pay to see them perform.